What’s an Instagram shadow ban? It happened to me and it could happen to you too

What, exactly, is an Instagram shadow ban? In a blog post earlier this month, I detailed a problem with Instagram hashtags not working properly. Toward the end of the article, I theorized that, “My account is being limited/throttled in some way where Instagram may show my own photos to me as normal, but is hiding them from other users during hashtag searches.” If this thing had a name, it would be an Instagram shadow ban. And that’s exactly what’s happened to me.

Did Instagram shadow ban me?
Completely unrelated image. Model: Jenny.

What’s a shadow ban?

Let’s talk about shadow bans in general first. I first heard about the practice of shadow bans on Reddit, where it was used as a tool to silence undesirable users — mostly spam accounts, bots, trolls, and other useless fluff that didn’t contribute to the site in any meaningful way. After a shadow ban was applied to a Reddit account by a moderator, the user it applied to would see no difference while using the site. They received no notification about the new limitations placed on their account, hence the “shadow” part of the name — they were in the dark about what happened to them. To other users, all activity from the shadow banned user was hidden from view. In some cases, some shadow banned users continued commenting and posting for months or even years after being shadow banned without ever realizing their status. Despite the fact that their comments earned no replies, no upvotes or downvotes, and no reactions of any kind, they kept posting.

Shadow bans have since been used on Facebook and Twitter as well. On Facebook, the administrator of a Facebook Page has the ability to shadow ban specific comments in addition to their normal ability to block users from a Page completely. By hiding a comment on their Page, an admin assures that only the comment author and the author’s friends can see the comment, but no one else will be bothered by it.

Shadow bans are a double-edged sword. When used properly and effectively, they can keep social media free of the toxic elements that often cause their downfall. But those who dole out shadow bans can also easily abuse the tool, with unintended consequences as a result.

In the case of Reddit, shadow bans were a heavy-handed punishment only meant to be used in extreme circumstances. But because Reddit lacked other tools at the time for dealing with these issues, the shadow ban hammer came down swiftly and often on users who didn’t necessarily deserve it. Reddit has since cleaned up their disciplinary system and given moderators better tools to deal with undesirable users without resorting to shadow bans.

How does an Instagram shadow ban work?

First, it’s important to point out that we don’t yet know what triggers an Instagram shadow ban. It could be a manual restriction put in place by an Instagram administrator, or it could be something triggered automatically by an algorithm detecting user behaviour.

If you’ve ever asked yourself, “did Instagram shadow ban me?”, here’s how an Instagram shadow ban works and how it happened to me.

About six months ago, I noticed that my small but steady gains of Instagram followers had dried up, and in fact my follower count remained stagnant or slowly decreased day by day. It wasn’t too long after that when I realized that nearly 100% of my likes were coming from users who already followed me. While it’s quite normal for a majority of likes to come from existing followers, I could always count on effective and relevant hashtagging to drive a few new eyeballs towards my posts. But that dried up and I wasn’t sure why.

Drop in Instagram followers — 2015 vs 2016
Drop in Instagram followers — 2015 vs 2016

I continued posting, hashtagging, trying every technique I could think of to get my likes up and get my follower count up. I varied posting times, hashtagging techniques, and subject matter. Nothing worked. I switched my Instagram account to a business profile to get access to Instagram analytics. When I did that, I noticed that my posts were only reaching a number of people equal to about one-fifth of my follower count. Impressions were equally low. This told me that even with my careful and extensive hashtagging, it was possible that somehow, some way, Insatgram users weren’t seeing my posts in the hashtag indexes.

So I did a little test. I made a post recently with a relatively unpopular hashtag, one that only had a few thousand posts associated with it. I then immediately checked the hashtag to see if my post was in the index. It certainly was. Everything looked normal. Then I switched to one of my other Instagram accounts (which is following my main account) and checked the hashtag again. The post was still there. Everything looked normal. Then I unfollowed my main account and checked the hashtag one more time. Suddenly, the post was gone. Vanished. Invisible. Hidden in the shadows, you could say.

Instagram shadow ban!

I repeated the test with a few more posts, hashtags, and accounts, to make sure that this wasn’t just a glitch. The repeated tests showed the same results — I am definitely shadow banned. You can do this same Instagram shadow ban check yourself from a different account than your own (that isn’t following you). There are a number of online tools that promise to do this check for you, but they’ve been found to be inaccurate. Test it yourself manually to know for sure.

To recap, Instagram has eliminated my ability to use hashtags but provided me with no notice of doing so. My posts appear normally to me and my existing followers, but anyone who isn’t following me will never see my posts in a hashtag index, limiting the growth and exposure of my account, and thus my business.

How long does an Instagram shadow ban last?
Completely unrelated image. Model: Samantha.

Why are shadow bans used anyway? Why not a regular ban?

“Regular” bans on social media have been around on most platforms forever, but they come with a catch. Because the user is informed that their behaviour has gotten them banned, this can in turn lead to even worse behaviour from the user who is angry about being banned. It’s not unusual for a banned user to create new accounts for the sole purpose of harassing the banners, complaining loudly, and causing even more trouble than before as some sort of revenge tactic for being banned.

Shadow bans avoid all that, because the user doesn’t know they’ve been banned. Ignorance is bliss. They go about their trolling or spamming or what have you, blissfully ignorant that their posts are having zero impact on their victims. Because the posts receive no engagement, the social media channels hope that this will cause the undesirable users to eventually give up and go away.

So while shadow bans have good intentions, sometimes regular, well-meaning, non-abusive users such as myself get caught up in them and we have no idea why. This is problematic because we can’t take steps to correct whatever problems might have triggered the ban.

Can an Instagram shadow ban be fixed? Is it permanent?

Personally speaking, I’ve used Instagram’s “Report a Problem” feature to ask about having my Instagram shadow ban rescinded. I haven’t heard anything back as of publication time, but I’ll update this post if I do. Not holding my breath.

Aside from that, the only option might be to create a new Instagram account and start from scratch. This going to absolutely suck for most users. When creating a new account, it’s probably best to use a new email address and/or phone number if possible — Instagram might have the shadow ban permanently tied to specific user information like this and the new account could be under the same restrictions as a result. Instagram makes it clear in their privacy policy that they also use hardware device identifiers — “data structures stored on or associated with your mobile device which uniquely identify your mobile device.” It’s entirely possible that Instagram could shadow ban any account created or used on a device that has had previous shadow bans applied. Yikes. I don’t know yet what I’ll do, but I know I can’t continue with my stagnant account. I’ll make an announcement here on the blog when I’ve made changes.

[UPDATE 12/29: I’m shutting down my Instagram account and moving to a new one. Follow my new account here.]

All social media services need to be more transparent when it comes to tools for dealing with abuse and undesirable activities. Shadow bans are a lazy, non-confrontational way of dealing with abuse and better tools need to be developed. Shadow bans are easy to circumvent (create a new account) for any dedicated troublemaker. Same goes for device identifiers — they’re easily spoofed, and cheap, app-ready, smart hardware devices are easy to come by (unlocked off-brand Android phones can be had for less than $30). Silicon Valley is filled with some of the smartest people on Earth — surely they can figure out solid, effective ways to curb abuse without cheap tricks like shadow bans. Right?

Are you suffering from an Instagram shadow ban? Are you shadow banned on any other social media services? What triggered it? Leave a comment below. I’d love to know more.

[UPDATE 11/30/17: So Ive noticed a new wrinkle in how Instagram detects shadow bannable posts. While my new account has largely been without problems for most of the year, once a month or so a single post of mine will be shadow banned. The curious part is that even if I delete the post and repost it with only a single hashtag (common or uncommon tags), the post remains shadow banned. It appears Instagram is keeping a database of shadow banned images and using image recognition to detect when theyre posted. I cant prove this, but it seems to be the only viable explanation right now.]